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The size of the sample then required, however, was ~500cm, which would clearly have resulted in an unacceptable amount of damage, and it was not until the development in the 1970s of small gas-counters and accelerator-mass-spectrometry techniques (AMS), requiring samples of only a few square centimetres, that radiocarbon dating of the shroud became a real possibility. The shroud was separated from the backing cloth along its bottom left-hand edge and a strip (~10 mm x 70 mm) was cut from just above the place where a sample was previously removed in 1973 for examination.
The company claims the new technology has significant potential for patients who were previously considered to be risky dental-implant candidates because of poor bone quality due to osteoporosis or cancer treatments that weaken bone strength.
Magdent boss Elad Yakobson explained: ‘All dental implants use titanium screws, and many companies have tried to accelerate osseointegration by changing the shape of the screw, but the differences are minor.‘Ours is the first innovation that lets the doctor actively influence the healing process.
The MED creates stimulation from microelectronics inside the healing abutment and can help people whose jawbone was not considered good enough to take an implant.’ But by using electromagnetic transmitters in the end of the screw, the new implant procedure can speed up the integration process by between 40 and 70 per cent, according to its originators (file photo)In addition to shortening the integration process and improving the quality of the bone by up to 40 per cent, MED may prove helpful in preventing or treating peri-implantitis, an infection that can occur around the dental implant after the procedure, as electromagnetic stimulation helps to kill bacteria.
1 - Department of Geosciences, 2 - Department of Physics, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721, USA 3 - Research Laboratory for Archaeology and History of Art, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 3QJ, UK 4 - Institut für Mittelenergiephysik, ETH-Hönggerberg, CH-8093 Zürich, Switzerland 5 - Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Columbia University, Palisades, New York 10964, USA 6 - Research Laboratory, British Museum, London WC1B 3DG, UK Very small samples from the Shroud of Turin have been dated by accelerator mass spectrometry in laboratories at Arizona, Oxford and Zurich.
After many journeys the shroud was finally brought to Turin in 1578 where, in 1694, it was placed in the royal chapel of Turin Cathedral in a specially designed shrine.
Photography of the shroud by Secondo Pia in 1898 indicated that the image resembled a photographic 'negative' and represents the first modern study.
Subsequently the shroud was made available for scientific examination, first in 19 by a committee appointed by Cardinal Michele Pellegrino .
Even for the first investigation, there was a possibility of using radiocarbon dating to determine the age of the linen from which the shroud was woven.
As Controls, three samples whose ages had been determined independently were also dated.
The results provide conclusive evidence that the linen of the Shroud of Turin is mediaeval.
The Shroud of Turin , which many people believe was used to wrap Christ's body, bears detailed front and back images of a man who appears to have suffered whipping and crucifixion.
It was first displayed at Lirey in France in the 1350s and subsequently passed into the hands of the Dukes of Savoy.